"FIFA has recently released a project that could limit the number of out-going loans if they are conducted for 'commercial exploitation'. Such reforms could put more pressure on teams that use or depend on loans". These sentences come from a 2021 European Sports Management Quarterly paper. In the paper, Antoine Feuillet and colleagues attempt to identify those clubs who might be sporting competitors but engaged in economic cooperation (and those engaged in economic competition and sporting cooperation). It is in the market for player loans/transfers that there is this combination of competition and cooperation - known as coopetition.
The table below illustrates the areas where the authors sees clubs as engaged in either competition or cooperation. Cooperation is needed to administer the game. To deliver the product. Administration involves both sporting and economic cooperation. Then there is sporting competition on the field as measured by a variety of outcomes, e.g. UEFA Coefficient. There is economic competition for sponsorship and broadcast rights.